Brotherhood of St Laurence

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How Responsive is Female Labour Supply to Child Care Costs - New Australian Estimates /

by Gong, Xiaodong | Australia. The Treasury | Breunig, Robert | King, Anthony.

Publisher: Parkes, A.C.T. Australia. The Treasury 2010Description: PDF.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: April 2010 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: The degree of responsiveness of Australian women's labour supply to child care cost has been a matter of some debate. There is a view that the level of responsiveness is very low or negligible, running counter to international and anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review the Australian and international literature on labour supply and child care, and provide improved Australian estimates of labour supply elasticities and child care demand elasticities with respect to gross child care price. We find that the limited literature in Australia has suffered from measurement error problems stemming in large part from shortcomings with data on child care price and child care usage. We use detailed child care data from three recent waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey (covering the period 2005 to 2007) to address these problems. We extend the standard labour supply and child care model to allow for separate effects of different child care prices for children in different age ranges and we calculate regional child care prices based upon child level information. The salient finding is that child care prices do have statistically significant effects on mothers' labour supply and child care demand. The new estimates are in line with international findings, and their robustness is supported by a validation exercise involving an alternative technique and an earlier time period.Availability: (1)

In the best interests of children : reforming the Child Support Scheme. /

by Australia. Department of Family and Community Services. Ministerial.

Publisher: Canberra, A.C.T. The Department 2005Description: viii, 284 p.: ill., tables.Notes: Alternative title: Report of the Ministerial Taskforce on Child Support.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Intra-household time allocation : gender differences in caring for children /

by Garc a-Mainar, Inmaculada | Institute for the Study of Labor | Molina, Jos Alberto | Montuenga, V ctor M.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Online Access: Electronic copy Summary: This paper analyses the intra-household allocation of time to show gender differences in childcare. In the framework of a general efficiency approach, hours spent on childcare by each parent are regressed against individual and household characteristics, for five samples (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain), with data being drawn from the European Community Household Panel-ECHP (1994-2001). Empirical results show a clear inequality in childcare between fathers and mothers, with this being more evident in Mediterranean countries. Panel data estimates reveal that, in general, caring tasks are mainly influenced by the presence of young children in the household, by the total non-labor income, and by the ratio of mothers' non-labor income to family's non-labor income, with this latter variable exhibiting a different behavior across genders and across countries.Availability: (1)

Lone and couple mothers in the Australian labour market : exploring differences in employment transitions? /

by Baxter, Jennifer | Australian Institute of Family Studies | Renda, Jennifer.

Publisher: Melbourne Australian Institute of Family Studies 2011Description: PDF.Other title: Australian Institute of Family Studies [AIFS]. Research paper.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: An earlier version of this paper, The Stability of Lone Mothers' Employment: Using HILDA Calendar Data to Examine Work Transitions, was presented at the HILDA Research Conference in September 2009. Bibliography : p. 31-34 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: While more mothers have been participating in the paid workforce, over recent years, the employment rate of lone mothers remains lower than that of couple mothers. Concerns about the wellbeing of adults and children living in jobless households contribute to continuing interest in explaining the relatively low employment rate of lone mothers. This paper provides new insights into possible reasons for the different rates of employment of lone and couple mothers by examining how their employment transitions vary. A focus on transitions enables us to examine whether the lower employment rate of lone mothers is due to their being less likely to enteremployment, more likely to exit employment once employed, or a combination of both. Monthly calendar data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey are used to identify and compare the rate at which lone and couple mothers move into and out of employment over a seven-year period. These data show that in any one-month period, lone mothers are less likely to be employed than couple mothers. Of those employed in a one month period, lone mothers are more likely to transition out of employment than couple mothers; however, not-employed lone and couple mothers are no different in their likelihood of transition into employment.Availability: (1)

Long overdue : the macroeconomic benefits of paid parental leave /

by Richardson, David | The Australia Institute | Fletcher, Tully.

Publisher: Manuka, A.C.T. The Australia Institute 2009Description: PDF.Other title: The Australia Institute policy brief ; no. 1.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: April 2009Summary: Despite decades of campaigning, Australia is one of only two OECD countries that do not provide comprehensive paid parental leave. As Deputy Prime Minister Julia Gillard said in October last year: 'This is an issue that's been neglected for a long period of time'. In responding to the release of the recent Productivity Commission (PC) draft report into paid parental leave, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd stated: 'This Australian Government believes the time has come to bite the bullet on this and we intend to do so'. He did not however commit to addressing the issue before the 2009 Federal Budget.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Mothers and fathers with young children : paid employment, caring and wellbeing /

by Baxter, Jennifer | Australia. Department of Families, Housing, Community ervices and Indigenous Affairs | Gray, Matthew | Alexander, Michael.

Publisher: Canberra, A.C.T. The Department 2007Description: xii, 139 p.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 133-139) FaCSIA0224.07.03 July 2007Summary: The paper examines how the use of child care, the time parents spend with children, and parental wellbeing relate to parental employment. The analysis in this paper is based on Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children (LSAC) confidentialised unit record file.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Paid maternity, paternity and parental leave : public inquiry report. /

by Australia. Productivity Commission.

Publisher: Melbourne, Vic. Productivity Commission 2009Description: PDF.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: May 2009Summary: The Australian Government's statutory paid parental leave scheme should be taxpayer-funded, and should: provide paid postnatal leave for a total of 18 weeks that can be shared by eligible parents, with an additional two weeks of paternity leave reserved for the father (or same sex partner) who shares in the daily primary care of the child; provide the adult federal minimum wage (currently Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Paid parental leave : support for parents with newborn children /

by Australia. Productivity Commission.

Publisher: Canberra, A.C.T Productivity Commission 2009Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: 28 February 2009Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Paid parental leave /

by O'Neill, Steve | Australia. Department of Parliamentary Services. arliamentary Library.

Publisher: Canberra, A.C.T Parliament of Australia 2010Description: PDF.Online Access: Electronic copy Availability: (1)

Paid parental leave evaluation : phase 1 /

by Martin, Bill | Australia. Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs | Hewitt, Belinda | Baird, Marian.

Publisher: Canberra, A.C.T. Australia. Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs 2012Description: xii, 127 p. ; ill.Other title: Australia. Department of Families, Housing, Community.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: May 2012 Bibliography : p. 121-127Summary: This paper presents the main findings of the first phase of the evaluation of the Australian Government's Paid Parental Leave program, which commenced in January 2011 and provides eligible parents with up to 18 weeks of Parental Leave Pay, paid at the National Minimum Wage, following the birth of a child.Availability: (1)

Public policies and women's employment after childbearing . /

by Han, Wen-Jui | Ruhm, Christopher | Waldfogel, Jane | Washbrook, Elizabeth.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Notes: URL: 'http://ftp.iza.org/dp3937.pdf' Checked: 2/06/2009 11:29:21 AM Status: Live Details: HTTP status 200 - Usual success response Family & early years Into & out of work INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: "This paper examines how the public policy environment in the United States affects work by new mothers following childbirth. We examine four types of policies that vary across states and affect the budget constraint in different ways. The policy environment has important effects, particularly for less advantaged mothers. There is a potential conflict between policies aiming to increase maternal employment and those maximizing the choices available to families with young children. However, this tradeoff is not absolute since some choice increasing policies (generous child care subsidies and state parental leave laws) foster both choice and higher levels of employment." -- PublicationAvailability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Raising young children in Greater Dandenong : an initial needs study for the Communities for Children Program

by Stanley, Janet | Brotherhood of St Laurence | Boese, Martina | Ansems, Helen | Webb, Jill.

Publisher: Fitzroy, Vic. Brotherhood of St Laurence 2006Description: ii, 24 p. : ill. PDF.Online Access: DOWNLOAD PDF Notes: June 2006 Summary: This small study documented the needs of families with young children in Greater Dandenong, drawing on consultations with local residents and with selected community groups (e.g. playgroups and adult English classes) caring for children and serving people who may be at risk of social exclusion. The study was undertaken to inform the Greater Dandenong Communities for Children program, one of 45 sites funded by the Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. It was a partnership between Mission Australia, the City of Greater Dandenong and the Brotherhood of St Laurence.Availability: Items available for loan: BSL Archives (1).

Relational contracts, taxation and the household /

by Apps, Patricia | Rees, Ray.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Online Access: Electronic copy Summary: This paper applies the theory of relational contracts to make precise the idea that because households are engaged in a repeated non-cooperative game, Pareto efficient outcomes can be supported by self interest, given the specific pattern of specialisation and exchange which exists in the household. The household's choice of a particular solution from the resulting feasible set is found by the maximisation of a household welfare function, a generalisation of a suggestion originally made by Samuelson. This nests as special cases the objective functions used in currently popular models of households engaged in one-shot cooperative games. We take a specific example of such a household welfare function, characterise the determinants of the household utility distribution, and then apply the model to examine the effects of a move from joint to individual taxation. We show that on standard stylised facts, secondary earners are always better off absolutely, and define the conditions! under which they will also be so relatively. This confirms the conclusions from models which concern themselves only with the across-household welfare distribution.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Reservation wages and the earnings capacity of lone and couple mothers : are wage expectations too high? /

by Gray, Matthew | Renda, Jennifer.

Publisher: Melbourne, Vic. Australian Institute of Family Studies 2006Description: x, 24 p.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: May 2006 Includes bibliographical references (p. 18-19)Availability: (1)

Shift work and child behavioural outcomes /

by Han, Wei-Jui.

Publisher: 2008Availability: No items available

State of the world's mothers 2009 /

by Save the Children.

Publisher: Westport, CT Save the Children 2009Description: PDF.Availability: No items available

State of the world's mothers report . /

by Save the children.

Publisher: Melbourne, Vic. Save the Children 2009Description: PDF.Notes: URL: 'http://tinyurl.com/nlwhtq' Checked: 2/06/2009 11:35:37 AM Status: Live Details: HTTP status 200 - Usual success response Family & early yearsAvailability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

The costs of children : parenting and democracy in contemporary Europe /

by Mayes, David G. (ed) | Thomson, Mark (ed.).

Edition: WOMEN - Employment | CHILD CARE - Costs | | WAGES - Women |Publisher: Cheltenham, U.K. Edward Elgar Publishing 2012Description: xvii, 287 p.Summary: This informative book explores the fair allocation of the costs of childcare in European countries and suggests that better choice is required to reduce the current tendency to discriminate against mothers. The expert contributors provide an assessment of how countries can handle the fair allocation of the costs of childcare. They look at the experience within Europe in recent years and show in particular how these interrelate with the objectives of improving income, employment and social inclusion. The study's conclusion reveals that choice is the key ingredient as families have different views and different degrees of support available from their relatives. Income and social inclusion can provide choice but ironically employment does not always. An employment-based model can sometimes narrow people's choices, particularly for people on low wages. The major concern is that most existing systems effectively discriminate against mothers. This is the first book to consider the democratic implications of social welfare systems. It provides an up-to-date assessment of the pressures on parents in deciding how to raise their children under restricted incomes. For many families, practical decisions about childcare are found at a local level. These will depend on the immediate factors that affect them, such as the availability of local nurseries or a family's ability to draw on voluntary networks of support. What is clear, however, is that many of these arrangements discriminate against women. Researchers and practitioners in the field of social policy and childcare in particular will find this book insightful. Graduate students of social policy will also find some practical examples to make their courses more relevant. [Publisher]Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

The impact of child support payments on the labour supply decisions of resident mothers /

by Taylor, Matthew | Australian Institute of Family Studies | Gray, Matthew.

Publisher: Melbourne, Vic. Australian Institute of Family Studies 2010Description: PDF.Other title: Australian Institute of Family Studies [AIFS]. Research paper.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2010 This report uses data from Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) confidentialised unit record file. Bibliography : p. 20 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: This report analyses the effect of receipt of child support payments on the labour supply of resident mothers. This is an important issue, given the role that paid employment plays in increasing the short- and long-term economic wellbeing of separated mothers. There appears to be no Australian research into this issue, and only a handful of international studies. The effect of receipt of child support on resident mothers, labour supply is estimated using data from an important new Australian data source, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). LSAC is a nationally representative large-scale longitudinal survey of two cohorts of Australian children born in 1999-2000 and 2003-04. The first two waves of LSAC provide information on the child support payments received by resident mothers with at least one child under the age of 7 years. Given that the data used in this study were collected in 2004 and 2006, the estimates are for the Child Support Scheme that was in place prior to the reforms that arose from the recommendations of the Ministerial Taskforce on Child Support, which were fully implemented in July 2008. Economic theory suggests that receipt of non-labour market income (such as child support or income support payments) will reduce the labour force participation of mothers (both the probability of being employed and, where they are already employed, the number of hours worked). This is termed the 'income effect' and occurs because the mother is able to achieve the same level of consumption for fewer hours worked than they would in the absence of these payments. ; LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN CHILDREN (LSAC)Availability: (1)

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