Brotherhood of St Laurence

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A comparative analysis of the nativity wealth gap . /

by Bauer, Thomas K | Institute for the Study of Labor | Cobb-Clark, Deborah A | Hildebrand, Vincent.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2007Description: PDF.Notes: URL: 'http://ftp.iza.org/dp2772.pdf' Checked: 6/10/2008 10:40:48 AM Status: Live Details: HTTP status 200 - Usual success response Into & out of work Retirement & ageingSummary: international migration, wealth accumulationAvailability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

A cost benefit analysis of early childhood intervention : evidence from a randomised evaluation of a parenting programme /

by O'Neill, Donal | Institute for the Study of Labor.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: IZA DP No. 4518Summary: A number of researchers and policy makers have recently argued that the most effective way of dealing with long-run disadvantage and the intergenerational transmission of poverty is through early childhood intervention and in particular policies aimed at supporting the family in early childhood development. In this paper we carry out a randomised evaluation of one such programme aimed at improving the skills and parenting strategies of parents, particularly those who find their child's behaviour difficult or challenging. Our evaluation shows that the treatment significantly reduced behavioural problems in young children when measured 6 months after the intervention. Furthermore our detailed cost analysis, combined with a consideration of the potential long-run benefits associated with the programme, suggest that the long-run rate of return to society from this programme is likely to be relatively high.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Age at migration and social integration /

by slund, Olof | Institute for the Study of Labor | B hlmark, Anders | Nordstr m Skans, Oskar.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: June 2009Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Are lone mothers responsive to policy changes? : evidence from a workfare reform in a generous welfare state /

by Mogstad, Magne | Institute for the Study of Labor | Pronzato, Chiara.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009Summary: There is a heated debate in many European countries about a move towards a welfare system that increases the incentives for lone mothers to move off welfare and into work. We analyze the consequences of a major Norwegian workfare reform of the generous welfare system for lone mothers. Our difference-in-differences estimates show that the policy changes were successful in improving labor market attachment and increasing disposable income of new lone mothers. By contrast, the reform led to a substantial decrease in disposable income and a significant increase in poverty among persistent lone mothers, because a sizeable group was unable to offset the loss of out-of-work welfare benefits with gains in earnings. This suggests that the desired effects of the workfare reform were associated with the side-effects of income loss and increased poverty among a substantial number of lone mothers with insurmountable employment barriers. This finding stands in stark contrast to evidence f! rom similar policychanges in Canada, the UK, and the US, and underscores that policymakers from other developed countries should be cautious when drawing lessons from the successful welfare reforms implemented in Anglo-Saxon countries.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Are older workers worthy of their pay? : an empirical investigation of age-productivity and age-wage nexuses /

by Rute Cardoso, Ana | Institute for the Study of Labor | Guimaraes, Paulo | Varejao, Jose.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2010Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: August 2010 Bibliography : p. 16-17 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: Using longitudinal employer-employee data spanning over a 22-year period, we compare age-wage and age-productivity profiles and find that productivity increases until the age range of 50-54, whereas wages peak around the age 40-44. At younger ages, wages increase in line with productivity gains but as prime-age approaches, wage increases lag behind productivity gains. As a result, older workers are, in fact, worthy of their pay, in the sense that their contribution to firm-level productivity exceeds their contribution to the wage bill. On the methodological side, we note that failure to account for the endogenous nature of the regressors in the estimation of the wage and productivity equations biases the results towards a pattern consistent with underpayment followed by overpayment type of policies.Availability: (1)

Are short-lived jobs stepping stones to long-lasting jobs? /

by Cockx, Bart L. W | Institute for the Study of Labor | Picchio, Matteo.

Publisher: Munich, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORK SCHOOL TO WORKSummary: This paper assesses whether short-lived jobs (lasting one quarter or less and involuntarily ending in unemployment) are stepping stones to long-lasting jobs (enduring one year or more) for Belgian long-term unemployed school-leavers. We proceed in two steps. First, we estimate labour market trajectories in a multi-spell duration model that incorporates lagged duration and lagged occurrence dependence. Second, in a simulation we find that (fe)male school-leavers accepting a short-lived job are, within two years, 13.4 (9.5) percentage points more likely to find a long-lasting job than in the counterfactual in which they reject short-lived jobs.Availability: (1)

Benefit Duration, Unemployment Duration and Job Match Quality : A Regression-Discontinuity Approach /

by Caliendo, Marco | Institute for the Study of Labor | Tatsiramos, Konstantinos | Uhlendorff. Arne.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany The Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: December 2009Summary: A 37-page discussion paper identifying the effect of extended benefit duration on unemployment duration and post-unemployment outcomesAvailability: (1)

Can workers' expectations account for the persistence of discrimination? /

by Filippin, Antonio | Institute for the Study of Labor.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor. Discussion paper : no. 4490.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009Summary: The paper explains how workers' expectations of being discriminated against can be self-confirming, accounting for the persistence of unequal outcomes in the labour market even beyond the causes that originally generated them. The theoretical framework used is a two-stage game of incomplete information in which one employer promotes only one among two workers after having observed their productivity, which is used as a signal of their ability. Workers who expect to be discriminated against exert a lower effort on average, because of a lower expected return, thereby being promoted less frequently even by unbiased employers. This implies that achievements of minority groups may not improve when the fraction of discriminatory employers actually decreases, and such a mechanism is robust both to trial work periods and to affirmative actions like quotas.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Carrot and stick: how reemployment bonuses and benefit sanctions affect job finding rates /

by van der Klaauw, Bas | Institute for the Study of Labor | Van Ours, Jan.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2010Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: July 2010Summary: "To increase their transition from welfare to work, benefit recipients in the municipality of Rotterdam were exposed to various financial incentives, including both carrots to sticks. Once their benefit spell exceeded one year, welfare recipients were entitled to a reemployment bonus if they found a job that lasted at least six months. However, they could also be punished for noncompliance with eligibility requirements and face a sanction, i.e. a temporary reducing of their benefits. In this paper we investigate how benefit sanctions and reemployment bonuses affect job finding rates of welfare recipients. We find that benefit sanctions were effective in bringing unemployed from welfare to work more quickly while reemployment bonuses were not." (Author abstract)Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Caught in the trap : the disincentive effect of social assistance /

by Bargain, Olivier | Institute for the Study of Labor | Doorley, Karina.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009Summary: While financial incentives usually have a significant effect on the labor supply of married women and single mothers, the evidence about the participation elasticity of childless singles,and single males especially, is more scant. This is, however, important in countries like France and Germany, where single individuals constitute the core of social assistance recipients. As yet, there is no conclusive evidence about whether, and to what extent, this group is affected by the financial disincentives embedded in the generous redistributive programs in place in these countries. In this paper, we exploit a particular feature of the main welfare scheme in France (Revenu Minimum Insertion, RMI), namely that childless adults under age 25 are not eligible for it. Using a regression discontinuity approach and the French micro-census data, we find that the RMI reduces the employment of uneducated single men by 7%-10%. Important policy implications are drawn.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Commuting, Wages and Bargaining Power /

by Rupert, Peter | Institute for the Study of Labor | Stancanelli, Elena | Wasmer, Etienne.

Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: A search model of the labor market is augmented to include commuting time to work. The theory posits that wages are positively related to commute distance, by a factor itself depending negatively on the bargaining power of workers. Since not all combinations of distance and wages are accepted, there is non-random selection of accepted job offers. We build on these ingredients to explore in the data the relationship between wages and commute time. We find that neglecting to account for this selection will bias downward the wage impact of commuting, and marginally affect the coefficients on education, age and gender. The correlation between the residuals of the selectivity equation and the distance equation is -0.70, showing the large impact of commute time on job acceptance decisions. We also use the theory to calculate the bargaining power of workers which largely varies depending on demographic groups: it appears to be much larger for men than that for women and that the ba! rgaining power of women with young children is essentially zero.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Cultural transmission of work-welfare attitudes and the intergenerational correlation in welfare receipt /

by Baron, Juan D | Institute for the Study of Labor | Cobb-Clark, Deborah A | Erkal, Nisvan.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2008Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORK SCHOOL TO WORKSummary: "This paper considers the potential for the cultural transmission of attitudes toward work, welfare, and individual responsibility to explain the intergenerational correlation in welfare receipt. Specifically, we examine whether mothers and their 18-year-old children share similar attitudes towards social benefits and social inequality as well as whether these attitudes differ by patterns of welfare receipt. We find evidence in support of the cultural transmission of work-welfare attitudes from mothers to children. Young people are significantly more likely to support the public-provision of generous unemployment benefits and believe that social inequality is driven by factors outside the individual's control as their mothers' support for these views increases. Youths' work-welfare attitudes are also related to the welfare histories of their families, but not to the welfare experiences of other young people in their neighborhoods." -- Publisher website.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Do as the neighbors do : the impact of social networks on immigrant employment /

by Andersson, Fredrik | Institute for the Study of Labor | Burgess, Simon | Lane, Julia.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: IZA DP No. 4423Summary: Substantial immigrant segregation in the United States, combined with the increase in the share of the U.S. foreign-born population, have led to great interest in the causes and consequences of immigrant concentration, including those related to the functioning of labor markets. This paper provides robust evidence that both the size and the quality of an immigrant enclave affects the labor market outcomes of new immigrants. We develop new measures of the quality, or information value, of immigrant networks by exploiting data based on worker earnings records matched to firm and Census information. We demonstrate the importance of immigrant employment links: network members are much more likely than other immigrants to be employed in the same firm as their geographic neighbors. Immigrants living with large numbers of employed neighbors are more likely to have jobs than immigrants in areas with fewer employed neighbors. The effects are quantitatively important and robust under ! alternative specifications. For example, in a high value network ? one with an average employment rate in the 90th percentile ? a one standard deviation increase in the log of the number of contacts in the network is associated with almost a 5% increase in the employment rate. Earnings, conditional on employment, increase by about 0.7%.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Does culture affect unemployment? : evidence from the R stigraben /

by Br gger, Beatrix | Institute for the Study of Labor | Lalive, Rafael | Zweim ller, Josef.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labour 2009Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: This paper studies the role of culture in shaping unemployment outcomes. The empirical analysis is based on local comparisons across a language barrier in Switzerland. This R stigraben separates cultural groups, but neither labor markets nor political jurisdictions. Local contrasts across the language border identify the role of culture for unemployment. Our findings indicate that differences in culture explain differences in unemployment duration on the order of 20%. Moreover, we find that horizontal transmission of culture is more important than vertical transmission of culture and that culture is about as important as strong changes to the benefit duration.Availability: (1)

Dynamics of poor health and non-employment /

by Haan, Peter | Institute for the Study of Labor | Myck , Michal.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: April 2009 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: While there is little doubt that the probability of poor health increases with age, and that less healthy people face a more difficult situation on the labour market, the precise relationship between facing the risks of health deterioration and labour market instability is not well understood. Using twelve years of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel we study the nature of the relationship between poor health and non-employment on a sample of German men aged 30-59. We propose to model poor health and non-employment as interrelated risks determined within a dynamic structure conditional on a set of individual characteristics. Applying dynamic panel estimation we identify the mechanism through which poor health contributes to the probability of being jobless and vice versa. We find an important role of unobserved heterogeneity and evidence for correlation in the unobservable characteristics determining the two processes. The results also show strong persistence in the dynamics of poor health and non-employment.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Educational Mismatch : are high-skilled immigrants really working at high-skilled jobs and the price they pay if they aren't? /

by Chiswick, Barry R | Institute for the Study of Labor | Miller, Paul W.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: This paper examines the incidence of the mismatch of the educational attainment and the occupation of employment, and the impact of this mismatch on the earnings, of high-skilled adult male immigrants in the US labor market. Analyses for high-skilled adult male native-born workers are also presented for comparison purposes. The results show that over-education is widespread in the high-skilled US labor market, both for immigrants and the native born. The extent of over-education declines with duration in the US as high-skilled immigrants obtain jobs commensurate with their educational level. Years of schooling that are above that which is usual for a worker's occupation are associated with very low increases in earnings. Indeed, in the first 10 to 20 years in the US years of over-education among high-skilled workers have a negative effect on earnings. This ineffective use of surplus education appears across all occupations and high-skilled education levels. Although schoolin! g serves as a pathway to occupational attainment, earnings appear to be more closely linked to a worker's occupation than to the individual's level of schooling.Availability: (1)

Eliciting Individual Preferences for Pension Reform /

by Fourati, Yosr Abid | Institute for the Study of Labor | O'Donoghue, Cathal.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Online Access: Electronic copy Summary: A 33-page discussion paper using data from a choice experiment to investigate individual preferences for an alternative state pension scheme based around preferences for cost, poverty, retirement age and pension parametersAvailability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Estimating the effect of a retraining program on the re-employment rate of displaced workers . /

by Cavaco, Sandra | Institute for the Study of Labor | Foug re, Denis | Pouget, Julien.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: In this paper we estimate by matching techniques the effects of a French retraining program on the reemployment rate of displaced workers. This program, called "Conventions de conversion", was intended to improve reemployment prospects of displaced workers by proposing them retraining and job seeking assistance for a period of six months beginning just after the dismissal. Our empirical analysis is based upon non-experimental data collected by the French Ministry of Labour. Matching estimates show that this program succeeded in increasing the employment rate of trainees by approximately 6 points of percentage in the medium-term, namely in the second and third years after the date of entry into the program. This improvement is essentially due to an increase of their reemployment rate in regular jobs, namely jobs under long-term labour contracts.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

From the dual apprenticeship system to a dual labor market ? : the German high-skill equilibrium and the service economy. /

by Eichhorst, Werner | Institute for the Study of Labor | Marx, Paul.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: Different models of protection against labor market risks are associated with diverging models of economic performance. Historically established institutional complementarities between labor market regulation, unemployment protection, and vocational training tend to mirror specific national models of economic production. For example, the German dual apprenticeship system is a core feature of the corporatist model of "diversified quality production". This, in turn, is supported via skills-protecting, earnings-related unemployment insurance, skills-oriented active labor market policies and strong dismissal protection so that long-term productive employment relationships become viable. The paper explores the connection between structural change and the development of skill creation in the German case with a particular focus on the difference between manufacturing and services as well as between different types of service sub-sectors. The paper takes manufacturing, a sector dominated by standard employment, as a reference point but mainly addresses different segments of the service economy: traditional ones (banking and insurance), new high-skill sectors (IT and the "creative economy") and growing areas of low-skill services (hotels and restaurants, cleaning). We find that dynamic job creation in these segments of the service sector was possible due to a less regulated institutional environment.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Global reform of personal income taxation, 1981-2005 : evidence from 189 countries /

by Peter, Klara Sabirianova | Institute for the Study of Labor | Buttrick, Steve | Duncan, Denvil.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Online Access: Electronic copy Summary: In this paper we use a panel of 189 countries to describe the salient trends that have emerged in national personal income tax systems spanning the twenty five year period from 1981 to 2005. Using complete national income tax schedules, we calculate actual average and marginal tax rates at different income levels as well as time-varying measures of structural progressivity and complexity of national tax systems. We show that frequent alterations of tax structures have reduced tax rates at higher levels of income and diminished the overall progressivity and complexity of national tax systems; however, the degree of this change varies considerably across countries. We also find that the relationship between the tax rates and revenue is positive for high income countries; however, the strength of the relationship declines with weaker institutions and lower levels of economic development.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

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