Brotherhood of St Laurence

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Cultural transmission of work-welfare attitudes and the intergenerational correlation in welfare receipt /

by Baron, Juan D | Institute for the Study of Labor | Cobb-Clark, Deborah A | Erkal, Nisvan.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2008Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORK SCHOOL TO WORKSummary: "This paper considers the potential for the cultural transmission of attitudes toward work, welfare, and individual responsibility to explain the intergenerational correlation in welfare receipt. Specifically, we examine whether mothers and their 18-year-old children share similar attitudes towards social benefits and social inequality as well as whether these attitudes differ by patterns of welfare receipt. We find evidence in support of the cultural transmission of work-welfare attitudes from mothers to children. Young people are significantly more likely to support the public-provision of generous unemployment benefits and believe that social inequality is driven by factors outside the individual's control as their mothers' support for these views increases. Youths' work-welfare attitudes are also related to the welfare histories of their families, but not to the welfare experiences of other young people in their neighborhoods." -- Publisher website.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Assessing the impact of a wage subsidy for single parents on social assistance in Canada /

by Lacroix, Guy | Institute for the Study of Labor.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Sudy of Labor 2009Description: PDF 30 p.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Notes: URL: 'http://ftp.iza.org/dp4134.pdf' Checked: 2/06/2009 11:34:30 AM Status: Live Details: HTTP status 200 - Usual success response Family & early years Into & out of work INTO AND OUT OF WORKAvailability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Are short-lived jobs stepping stones to long-lasting jobs? /

by Cockx, Bart L. W | Institute for the Study of Labor | Picchio, Matteo.

Publisher: Munich, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORK SCHOOL TO WORKSummary: This paper assesses whether short-lived jobs (lasting one quarter or less and involuntarily ending in unemployment) are stepping stones to long-lasting jobs (enduring one year or more) for Belgian long-term unemployed school-leavers. We proceed in two steps. First, we estimate labour market trajectories in a multi-spell duration model that incorporates lagged duration and lagged occurrence dependence. Second, in a simulation we find that (fe)male school-leavers accepting a short-lived job are, within two years, 13.4 (9.5) percentage points more likely to find a long-lasting job than in the counterfactual in which they reject short-lived jobs.Availability: (1)

Dynamics of poor health and non-employment /

by Haan, Peter | Institute for the Study of Labor | Myck , Michal.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: April 2009 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: While there is little doubt that the probability of poor health increases with age, and that less healthy people face a more difficult situation on the labour market, the precise relationship between facing the risks of health deterioration and labour market instability is not well understood. Using twelve years of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel we study the nature of the relationship between poor health and non-employment on a sample of German men aged 30-59. We propose to model poor health and non-employment as interrelated risks determined within a dynamic structure conditional on a set of individual characteristics. Applying dynamic panel estimation we identify the mechanism through which poor health contributes to the probability of being jobless and vice versa. We find an important role of unobserved heterogeneity and evidence for correlation in the unobservable characteristics determining the two processes. The results also show strong persistence in the dynamics of poor health and non-employment.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Age at migration and social integration /

by slund, Olof | Institute for the Study of Labor | B hlmark, Anders | Nordstr m Skans, Oskar.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: June 2009Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Boon or bane? : others' unemployment, well-being and job insecurity /

by Clark, Andrew E | Institute for the Study of Labor | Knabe, Andreas | R tzel, Steffen.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: The social norm of unemployment suggests that aggregate unemployment reduces the well-being of the employed, but has a far smaller effect on the unemployed. We use German panel data to reproduce this standard result, but then suggest that the appropriate distinction may not be between employment and unemployment, but rather between higher and lower levels of labour-market security, at least for men. Men with good job prospects, both employed and unemployed, are strongly negatively affected by regional unemployment. However, insecure employed men and poor-prospect unemployed men are less negatively, or even positively, affected. There is however no clear relationship for women. We analyse labour-market inequality and unemployment hysteresis in the light of our results.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

The anatomy of absenteeism /

by Markussen, Simen | Institute for the Study of Labor | Roed, Knut | R geberg, Ole J | Gaure, Simen.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: Based on comprehensive administrative register data from Norway, we examine the determinants of sickness absence behavior; in terms of employee characteristics workplace characteristics, panel doctor characteristics, and economic conditions. The analysis is based on a novel concept of a worker's steady state sickness absence propensity, computed from a multivariate hazard rate model designed to predict the incidence and the duration of sickness absence for all workers. Key conclusions are i) that most of the cross-sectional variation in absenteeism is caused by genuine employee heterogeneity; ii) that the identity of a person's panel doctor has a significant impact on absence propensity; iii) that sickness absence insurance is frequently certified for reasons other than sickness; and iv) that the recovery rate rises enormously just prior to the exhaustion of sickness insurance benefits.Availability: (1)

The duration of paid parental leave and children's scholastic performance /

by Liu, Qian | Institute for the Study of Labor | Skans, Oskar Nordstr m.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Summary: We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a result that is robust to a number of different specifications. We find no corresponding heterogeneity relative to parental earnings or fathers' education, or relative to other predictors of child performance. We find no effects on intermediate outcomes such as mothers' subsequent earnings, child health, parental fertility, divorce rates, or the mothers' mental health. Overall the results suggest positive causal interaction effects between mothers' education and the amount of time mothers! spend with their children. Since the institutional context is one in which the alternative is subsidized day care, the results imply that subsidizing longer parental leave spells rather than day care reinforce the relationship between maternal education and school outcomes.Availability: (1)

Caught in the trap : the disincentive effect of social assistance /

by Bargain, Olivier | Institute for the Study of Labor | Doorley, Karina.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009Summary: While financial incentives usually have a significant effect on the labor supply of married women and single mothers, the evidence about the participation elasticity of childless singles,and single males especially, is more scant. This is, however, important in countries like France and Germany, where single individuals constitute the core of social assistance recipients. As yet, there is no conclusive evidence about whether, and to what extent, this group is affected by the financial disincentives embedded in the generous redistributive programs in place in these countries. In this paper, we exploit a particular feature of the main welfare scheme in France (Revenu Minimum Insertion, RMI), namely that childless adults under age 25 are not eligible for it. Using a regression discontinuity approach and the French micro-census data, we find that the RMI reduces the employment of uneducated single men by 7%-10%. Important policy implications are drawn.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Are lone mothers responsive to policy changes? : evidence from a workfare reform in a generous welfare state /

by Mogstad, Magne | Institute for the Study of Labor | Pronzato, Chiara.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009Summary: There is a heated debate in many European countries about a move towards a welfare system that increases the incentives for lone mothers to move off welfare and into work. We analyze the consequences of a major Norwegian workfare reform of the generous welfare system for lone mothers. Our difference-in-differences estimates show that the policy changes were successful in improving labor market attachment and increasing disposable income of new lone mothers. By contrast, the reform led to a substantial decrease in disposable income and a significant increase in poverty among persistent lone mothers, because a sizeable group was unable to offset the loss of out-of-work welfare benefits with gains in earnings. This suggests that the desired effects of the workfare reform were associated with the side-effects of income loss and increased poverty among a substantial number of lone mothers with insurmountable employment barriers. This finding stands in stark contrast to evidence f! rom similar policychanges in Canada, the UK, and the US, and underscores that policymakers from other developed countries should be cautious when drawing lessons from the successful welfare reforms implemented in Anglo-Saxon countries.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Can workers' expectations account for the persistence of discrimination? /

by Filippin, Antonio | Institute for the Study of Labor.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor. Discussion paper : no. 4490.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009Summary: The paper explains how workers' expectations of being discriminated against can be self-confirming, accounting for the persistence of unequal outcomes in the labour market even beyond the causes that originally generated them. The theoretical framework used is a two-stage game of incomplete information in which one employer promotes only one among two workers after having observed their productivity, which is used as a signal of their ability. Workers who expect to be discriminated against exert a lower effort on average, because of a lower expected return, thereby being promoted less frequently even by unbiased employers. This implies that achievements of minority groups may not improve when the fraction of discriminatory employers actually decreases, and such a mechanism is robust both to trial work periods and to affirmative actions like quotas.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Commuting, Wages and Bargaining Power /

by Rupert, Peter | Institute for the Study of Labor | Stancanelli, Elena | Wasmer, Etienne.

Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: October 2009 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: A search model of the labor market is augmented to include commuting time to work. The theory posits that wages are positively related to commute distance, by a factor itself depending negatively on the bargaining power of workers. Since not all combinations of distance and wages are accepted, there is non-random selection of accepted job offers. We build on these ingredients to explore in the data the relationship between wages and commute time. We find that neglecting to account for this selection will bias downward the wage impact of commuting, and marginally affect the coefficients on education, age and gender. The correlation between the residuals of the selectivity equation and the distance equation is -0.70, showing the large impact of commute time on job acceptance decisions. We also use the theory to calculate the bargaining power of workers which largely varies depending on demographic groups: it appears to be much larger for men than that for women and that the ba! rgaining power of women with young children is essentially zero.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

New estimates of public employment and training program net impacts : a nonexperimental evaluation of the Workforce Investment Act Program /

by Heinrich, Carolyn J | Institute for the Study of Labor | Mueser, Peter R | Troske, Kenneth | Jeon, Kyung-Seong | Daver, C. Kahvecioglu.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Discussion Paper ; no..Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: November 2009 Includes bibliographical references.Summary: This paper presents nonexperimental net impact estimates for the Adult and Dislocated Worker programs under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), the primary federal job training program in the U.S, based on administrative data from 12 states, covering approximately 160,000 WIA participants and nearly 3 million comparison group members. The key measure of interest is the difference in average quarterly earnings or employment attributable to WIA program participation for those who participate, estimated for up to four years following entry into the program using propensity score matching methods. The results for the average participant in the WIA Adult program show that participating is associated with a several-hundred-dollar increase in quarterly earnings. Adult program participants who obtain training have lower earnings in the months during training and the year after exit than those who don't receive training, but they catch up within 10 quarters, ultimately registering large total gains. Themarginal benefits of training exceed, on average, Availability: (1)

Benefit Duration, Unemployment Duration and Job Match Quality : A Regression-Discontinuity Approach /

by Caliendo, Marco | Institute for the Study of Labor | Tatsiramos, Konstantinos | Uhlendorff. Arne.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany The Institute for the Study of Labor 2009Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: December 2009Summary: A 37-page discussion paper identifying the effect of extended benefit duration on unemployment duration and post-unemployment outcomesAvailability: (1)

Minimum Wages and Employment: Reconsidering the Use of a Time-Series Approach as an Evaluation Tool /

by Lee, Wang-Sheng | Institute for the Study of Labor | Sandy Suardi, Sandy.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) 2010Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: February 2010 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: The time-series approach used in the minimum wage literature essentially aims to estimate a treatment effect of increasing the minimum wage. In this paper, we employ a novel approach based on aggregate time-series data that allows us to determine if minimum wage changes have significant effects on employment. This involves the use of tests for structural breaks as a device for identifying discontinuities in the data which potentially represent treatment effects. In an application based on Australian data, the tentative conclusion is that the introduction of minimum wage legislation in Australia in 1997 and subsequent minimum wage increases appear not to have had any significant negative employment effects for teenagers.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Retire Later or Work Harder? /

by Bell, David N.F | Institute for the Study of Labor | Hart, Robert A.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2010Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: January 2010 Bibliography : p. 31-32Summary: We compare two policies of increasing British state pension provision: (a) increase the pensionable age of men and women, (b) maintain the existing retirement age but require older workers to work longer per-period hours. There are reasons for policy makers to give serious consideration to the under-researched alternative (b). First, from wage - hours contract theory we know that there are potential gains to both workers and firms of allowing hours to rise in work experience. Second, there is strong evidence that job satisfaction rises in age. Third, there has in any case been a significant overall increase in the hours supplied by older workers in the last two decades. We review the relevant theory, model the trade-off between later retirement versus increased work intensity, produce relevant background facts, and provide estimates of the policy trade-offs.Availability: (1)

Start-Up Subsidies for the Unemployed : Long-Term Evidence and Effect Heterogeneity /

by Caliendo, Marco | Institute for the Study of Labor | K nn, Steffen.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2010Description: 24 p. : ill.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: February 2010 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: Turning unemployment into self-employment has become an increasingly important part of active labor market policies (ALMP) in many OECD countries. Germany is a good example where the spending on start-up subsidies for the unemployed accounted for nearly 17% of the total spending on ALMP in 2004. In contrast to other programs like vocational training, job creation schemes, or wage subsidies the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of such schemes is still scarce; especially regarding long-term effects and effect heterogeneity. This paper aims to close this gap. We use administrative and survey data from a large sample of participants in two distinct start-up programs and a control group of unemployed individuals. We find that over 80% of participants are integrated in the labor market and have relatively high labor income five years after start-up. Additionally, participants are much more satisfied with their current occupational situation compared to previous jobs. Based on conditional propensity score matching methods we estimate the long-term effects of the programs against non-participation. Our results show that both programs are effective with respect to income and employment outcomes in the long-run. Moreover, we consider effect heterogeneity with respect to several dimensions and show that start-up subsidies for the unemployed tend to be most effective for disadvantaged groups in the labor market.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

The Design of Unemployment Transfers : Evidence from a Dynamic Structural Life-Cycle Model /

by Haan, Peter | Institute for the Study of Labor | Prowse, Victoria.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2010Description: 38 p.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper ;.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: February 2010 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: In this paper we use a dynamic structural life-cycle model to analyze the employment, fiscal and welfare effects induced by unemployment insurance. The model features a detailed specification of the tax and transfer system, including unemployment insurance benefits which depend on an individual s employment and earnings history. The model also captures the endogenous accumulation of experience which impacts on future wages, job arrivals and job separations. For better identification of the structural parameters we exploit a quasinatural experiment, namely reductions over time in the entitlement period for unemploymentinsurance benefits which varied by age and experience. The results show that a policy cut in the generosity of unemployment insurance operationalized as a reduction in the entitlementperiod generates a larger increase in employment and yields a bigger fiscal saving than a cut operationalized as a reduction in the replacement ratio. Welfare analysis of revenue neutral tax and transfer reforms also favors a reduction in the entitlement period.Availability: Items available for loan: Brotherhood of St Laurence (1).

Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility /

by Black, Sandra E | Institute for the Study of Labor | Devereux, Paul J.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2010Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: April 2010 Bibliography : p. 87-90Summary: Economists and social scientists have long been interested in intergenerational mobility, and documenting the persistence between parents' and children's outcomes has been an active area of research. However, since Gary Solon?s 1999 Chapter in the Handbook of Labor Economics, the literature has taken an interesting turn. In addition to focusing on obtaining precise estimates of correlations and elasticities, the literature has placed increased emphasis on the causal mechanisms that underlie this relationship. This chapter describes the developments in the intergenerational transmission literature since the 1999 Handbook Chapter. While there have been some important contributions in terms of measurement of elasticities and correlations, we will focus primarily on advances in our understanding of the forces driving the relationship and less on the precision of the correlations themselves.Availability: (1)

Mental health and labour market participation : evidence from IV Panel Data Models /

by Frijters, Paul | Institute for the Study of Labor | Johnston, David W | Shields, Michael A.

Publisher: Bonn, Germany Institute for the Study of Labor 2010Description: PDF.Other title: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Discussion paper.Online Access: Electronic copy Notes: April 2010 Bibliography : p. 18-19 INTO AND OUT OF WORKSummary: A large body of empirical research links mental health and labour market outcomes; however, there are few studies that effectively control for the two-way causality between work and health and the existence of unobserved individual characteristics that might jointly determine health and labour market outcomes. In this study, we estimate the effect of mental health on labour market participation using various models, including instrumental variable models that exploit individual variation observed in panel data. We find robust evidence that a reduction in mental health has a substantial negative impact on the probability of actively participating in the labour market. We calculate that a one standard deviation decrease in mental health decreases the probability of participation by around 17 percentage points. This effect is larger for females and for older individuals. We therefore provide robust evidence that there are substantial costs due to the lost productivity resulting from poor mental health.Availability: (1)

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